- What is the glomerular filtration rate?
- Describe briefly the peculiarities of renal circulation.
- Name the substance reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule.
- What are the hormones that act on the kidney?
- Name the kidney function test.
- What is renin?
- Enumerate the functions of the kidney.
- Draw and label the glomerular membrane
- What are the factors that influence GFR?
- How GFR can be measured? Why inulin is chosen for measuring it.
- Mention the peculiarities of RBF with their importance. In relation to normal urine formation?
- State the mechanism of reabsorption of glucose from the PCT of the kidney.
- Discuss the mechanism of reabsorption of water at different parts of the renal tubular.Or describe in brief the mechanism of ADH in kidney tubules.
- How concentration Udine is formed? Mechanism of urine formation. Define and classify diuresis.
- Discuss the mechanism of acidification of urine.
- How acid-base balance is maintained by the kidney?
- Mention the obligatory urine volume.
- Difference between water and osmotic diuresis.
- Auto regulations of renal blood flow.
- Countercurrent hypothesis
- Osmotic diuresis.
- Creatinine clearance test.
- JG apparatus
- Renal plasma clearance.
- Free water clearance
- TMG value
Body fluids and electrolyte
- Classify body fluids compartment
- Composition of ECF
- Difference: ECF and ICF
- The function of electrolyte of body fluids
- Water intake and output chart of normal adults male
- Type of volume disorders with examples
- Define hypernatremia and hypokalemia. Give their cause and consequences.
- Features of hypernatremia and misbalance
- Regulations of water and misbalance and k+ balance
- How H+ ion homeostasis maintains.
- Define edema. How edema develop in severe hypoproteinemia
- Biochemical features if the different disturbance of body fluids
- How body water balance is maintained
- How water is metabolized in the human body
- Value electrolyte of ECF.
- water intoxication
- water turnovers
- anion gap
- How ECF volume is regulated?
- State the functions of body water
- What is an insensible water loss?
- Short note i) dietary fiber ii) hypertonic volume disorders
- Name the major water retaining solutions in ECF
- Define electrolyte
- How Na+ hemostasis is maintained
- Classify volume disorders cause and consequences of hypotonic volume expansion
- Define and classify diuresis