Identification is the determination of the individuality of a person based on certain physical characteristics i.e. exact fixation of personality.

Types of Identification

Complete: Exact specification of the individual  

Incomplete: certain facts are determined eg. Race, sex, age, stature, while other characters are not known. 


Identification is needed in 

  1. Living person
  2. Recently dead persons
  3. Decomposed bodies
  4. Mutilated & burnt bodies
  5. Skeleton


Data for identification  

Sex, age, and stature are primary characteristics of identification.

For Dead Body 

- Age, Sex, General development & stature, Complexion & features,  

- Congenital peculiarities such as DNA, Blood grouping, Fingerprint, Footprint, Malformation & deformities, Birthmarks & mole 

- Acquired peculiarities such as scars, tattoo marks, wounds, occupation marks, 

- Anthropometric measurements i.e. Height, weights 

- Personal Effects such as Clothes, Pocket content, Jewellery 

- Teeth 

- Race & Religion 

For Living Body 


Speech & voice,

Gait, Tricks of manner & habit,

Memory, Education 


Note: At least two identification marks should be noted by the doctor in all medico-legal cases


Medicolegal Importance of Identification 

-In case of living: 

In civil cases

  1. Marriage
  2. Inheritance 
  3. Passport 
  4. Admission to an institution 
  5. Insurance 
  6. Pension claims 
  7. Disputed sex
  8. Missing persons


In criminal cases 

  1. Assault
  2. Rape 
  3. Sodomy 
  4. Murder
  5. Absconding soldiers and criminals 
  6. Interchange of newborn babies in the maternity hospital 
  7. Impersonation
  8. Occasionally adults who have lost memory

In case of death: 

  1. Sudden and unexpected death
  2. Railway accident, aircraft accident
  3. Road traffic accident
  4. Mass disaster
  5. Aircraft accident 
  6. Mutilated and hidden decomposed bodies
  7. Skeleton or isolated bones
  8. Fragment remains
  9. Exhausted dead bodies
  10. Partially burned dead bodies in fires and explosion





Race is a group of people of the world bearing the same physical and biological properties, which are peculiar and unique to them and different from other groups. 

Types of Race: 

1. Caucasians: Europe (Europeans, West Asians, Asian Indians, and some Americans) 

2. Mongolians: China, Myanmar (native Americans, Asiatic orientals, such as Koreans, Japanese, Chinese, and Southeast Asians) 

3. Negroes: African 


Morphological features of Bangladesh/Indian: 

1. Complexion: dark-brown, brown, or moderately fair skin 

2. Eye(Iris): Black 

3. Hair: Black, curly/straight 

4. Skull: (Cephalic index): Mesati-cephalic (medium-headed) 


Cephalic Index is the result, obtained by multiplying the maximum breadth of the skull by 100 and dividing the product by the maximum length of the skull. 

C.I.=(Maximum breadth of the skull / maximum length of the skull) * 100 

- Maximum length: Longitudinal distance between glabella and the external occipital protuberance 

- Maximum breadth: Transverse distance between two parietal eminences 

- The length and breadth are measured by calipers not by measuring tape. 


Types of the skull on the basis of cephalic index: 

Cephalic index Types of skull Race
70-75 Dolico-cephalic (long-headed)  Negroes, pure Caucasians
75-80 Mesati-cephalic (medium headed) Europeans, Chinese, and Indians
80-85 Brachycephalic (short-headed) Mongolian


Corpus delicti (delicti=fault; offence) (the body of offence; the essence of crime) means, the facts of any criminal offence, e.g., murder. 

Corpus delicti of murder is the fact that a person died from unlawful violence.  

It includes the body of the victim and other facts which are conclusive of death by foul play, such as a bullet or a broken knife-blade found in the body and responsible for the death. Clothing showing marks of the weapon and drawings and photographs of the deceased showing fatal injuries are also included in this term.  

The main part of corpus delicti is the establishment of the identity of the dead body, and infliction of violence in a particular way, at a particular time and place, by the person or persons charged with the crime and none other.  

The case against the accused cannot be established unless there is convincing proof of these points.  


Sex is distinguishing between male & female based on the types of gamete produced by the individual.  


Medico-legal importance of sex: 

In civil cases
1. Marriage
2. Inheritance
3. Passport
4. Admission into the institute
5. Insurance claims 
6. Pension claims
7. Disputed sex 
8. Missing persons


In criminal cases 
1. Accused
2. Interchange of the newborn
3. Absconding
4. Impersonation 


Both cases
1. Decomposed body
2. Mutilated body
3. Skeleton 
4. Mass disaster
5. Plane crash


Difference between Muslims and Hindus male: 

Traits  Muslim Male Hindu female 
1. Circumcision Present  Absent 
2. Corn & Callosities (callosity) on the Centre of the forehead, patella, tuberosity of Lt. Tibia, the tip of lt. Lateral malleolus. 
Callosities- (Thick, hardened layers of skin)
Present  Absent 
3. Staining of palm fingers with Heena  The palm of left hand and tip of little finger sometimes stained with Heena  No stained with henna 
4. Necklace of wooden beads around the neck 
(like rudraksha mala)
Absent Present 
5. Scared thread (Jaanai) No scared thread  Present over the left shoulder in a high cast 
6. Wearing cloths  Usually, lungi and paizama  Usually, dhotis 
7. Tuft of hair on the back of the head 
Absent  May be present

Difference between Muslim and Hindu females:

Trait Muslim Female Hindu female 
1. Vermillion mark(cinnabar-sinduur) Absent May be present 
2. Churi in the wrist (iron)  Absent Present 
3. Artificial spot (tips on forehead) Usually, absent Usually, present
4. Ring in the nose  Used in the septum  Usually through the left ala of the nose
5. Heena in the palm  Usually in the septum Usually, absent 
6. Tattoo mark  Not found   May be present 
7. Sliver Toe Ornaments  Absent Maybe present 


Determination of sex: 

1. Physical feature & Secondary sexual characteristics 

  Male  Female 

Primary sexual characteristics 

Presence of Testis, vas, prostrate,?seminal vesicle  Presence of Functioning ovary, uterus, adnexa 

Secondary sexual Characteristics 

Presence of facial & chest hair, penis 

Greater muscular development  

Presence of breast, vagina  

Less muscular development


2. Bones: Accuracy of sexing: 

Entire skeleton: 100% 
Skull alone: 90%
Pelvis alone: 95% 
Long bone alone: 80% 
Pelvis + skull: 98% 

3. Microscopic study of sex chromatins: 

- Barr's body and Davidson's body:

  • Present in female 
  • Absent in male 
Barr body: it is a small planoconvex mass, lying near the nuclear membrane. It is demonstrated by Dixonand Tarr. 
Davidson body: In females, the neutrophil, leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drumstick from in up to 6% of cells. These are called Davidson bodies. It is absent in males. 
Barr Body is the inactive condensed X chromosome present around the periphery of the nucleus in the somatic cells of a female. 

Davidson's Body drumstick shaped mass of chromatin found in the polymorpho-nuclear leukocyte (WBC) of female (esp-neutrophil) 

5. Gonadal biopsy: 

- Examination of the testicle: Spermatozoa is present or absent in semen 

- Examination of the ovary: Whether periodic discharge occurs or not 

6. Hormonal study; In Intersex cases

Assay of testosterone levels also helps in differentiating the sex of an individual. For females, they should have levels < 10 nmol/l 



Intersex is an intermingling (mixture) in one individual of characters of both sexes in varying degrees, including physical form, reproductive organs, and sexual behavior. 

Types: 4 groups 

1. Gonadal agenesis 

2. Gonadal dysgenesis: 

   a. Klinefelter's syndrome 

   b. Turners' syndrome 

3. True hermaphroditism 

4. False/pseudo hermaphroditism; 

    a. Male 

    b. female 


Gonadal agenesis
It is a condition in which there is no development of gonads or sex. 
- The nuclear sex: (-)Ve 
- The chromosomal pattern:00 
- No morphological features of either sex is developed at puberty. 


Gonadal dysgenesis
In pre-gonadal development, there is no abnormality of chromosomes in either number or structure. In this pattern, the primordial germ cells don’t migrate into the gonadal area and neither or ovary nor a testis develops. External genitalia?cease?at birth. The chromosomal pattern is 44XX or 44XY. 
Types: 2 types 
1. Klinefelter's syndrome (female type male) 
2. Turners' syndrome (male type female) 


  Klinefelter's syndrome  
Definition  In this condition, the anatomical structure is male, nuclear-sexing female but the secondary sex characteristics fail to develop during puberty.   
1. Testis are small and firm 
2. Scanty pubic and axillary hair 
3. Gynecomastia 
4. Scanty beard and mustache 
5. Azoospermia 
6. Nuclear sexing: (+) Ve 
7. Testicular atrophy (hyalinization) 
8. Chromosomal pattern: 47XXY 
9. High pitched voice 
10. Sterility Increased height 
11. Low level of testosterone 
1 in 1000 male birth 


Turners' syndrome (45+X ) 
In this condition, the subject is morphologically female but there is no proper development of female features during puberty
1. Amenorrhea 
2. Sterility 
3. Short stature 
4. Webbed-neck and shield chest 
5. Coarctation of the aorta and septal defect 
6. Spina bifida 
7. Cubitus valgus 
8. Nuclear sexing: (-) Ve 
9. Ovaries contain no griffin follicles 
10. Chromosomal pattern: 45 + XO 
11. Cushing syndrome and high incidence of DM 
1 in 2500 female births 

True hermaphroditism:

-The individual possesses both ovary and testis separately or as ovotestis in the abdomen, inguinal region, or labioscrotum. Here external genitalia of both sexes are present. However, it is a very rare condition. 


-In this, gonadal tissue of only one sex is seen internally, but external appearance is of the opposite sex. 


1. Male pseudo- hermaphroditism 

2. Female pseudo-hermaphroditism 

Male pseudo-hermaphroditism:
44XY chromosomal pattern and these cells chromatin negative. They contain a penis and always with a vagina. Nuclear sex is XY, but sex organs & sexual character deviate to female form due to testicular feminization. 


Testicular feminization is the genetic disorder that makes XY fetuses insensitive to androgen externally like normal girls. (Stop forming male genitalia & give female phenotype. 

Due to androgen receptor deficiency, 5a-reductase deficiency 

Female pseudo- hermaphroditism: 44XX chromosomal pattern and cells are chromatin positive. They have ovary but excessive production of androgens by adrenal causes the external genitalia to develop in the male direction. 

Concealed sex - Criminals may conceal their sex to avoid detection by changing dress or by other methods. 


Differentiate between male and female: 

Trait  Male  Female 
Gonad A functioning testis, a penis, a prostrate  A functioning ovary, uterus, and vagina 
Build  Larger with greater muscular development  Smaller with less muscular development 
Shoulders  Broad than hips  Narrower than hip 
Waist  Ill-defined  Well defined 
Trunk  The abdominal segment is smaller  Larger 
Thorax Dimension is more  Shorter and rounded 
Limbs longer  shorter 
Arms Flat on section  Cylindrical on section 
Thigh  Cylindrical Conical due to shorter femur and greater deposition of fat 
Gluteal region  Flutter  Full and rounded 
Wrist and ankles  Not delicate Delicate
Breast  Not developed Developed
Pubic hair  Thick and extended upwards to the umbilicus (rhomboid)  Thin, horizontal, and covers the mons vanaris(triangular)
Body hair  Present on face and chest  Absent on face and chest
Head hair  Shorter, thicker, coarse  Longer, thinner, finer 

Prominent, length: 4.8 cm 

Not prominent, length: 3.8cm 
Long Bones 

Ridges, depression & processes more prominent.  Bones of arms & legs are 8% longer. 

Less prominent 
Shaft  Rougher  Smoother, thinner 
Articular surface  Larger  smaller 
Femur  Head larger, neck _ obtuse angle with the shaft  Head smaller. Neck less obtuse angle with shaft 
Forehead Sloping  Verticle 
Glabella  Rough, Prominent  Smooth, small 
Supraorbital ridges  Prominent  Less prominent 
Parietal and frontal eminences  small large 
Mastoid process  Wider, longer Narrow, short 
Foramen Magnum  Large longer   
Muscular ridges  Marked  Faint 
Orbit  Square  Rounded 

Larger & thicker Chin- squared

Short & thinner Chin-rounded 

Pelvis inlet  Heart-shaped  Circular or elliptical 
Pelvis cavity  Conical-funnel shaped  Broad, round 
Pelvis outlet  Smaller  Larger
Suprapubic angle V-shaped (70-75)  U-shaped, 90-100 
Sacrum  Longer, more curved  Shorter, Less curved 
Obturator foramen  Large, oval  Small, triangular 
Greater sciatic notch  Smaller, deeper  Larger, shallower 
Ischiopubic ramus  More everted  Less everted 
Ischial tuberosity  Inverted  Everted 
Pre-auricular sulcus  Narrow, shallow  Well marked, deep 



Age is the time from birth till now, that a person has lived. 

Age can be determined from 

  1. Teeth 
  2. Ossification of bones 
  3. Secondary sex characteristics  
  4. General development in case of children 


Modern standard division of life-span  

  1. Fertilization to before implantation - called Zygote
  2. 7th day of fertilization (after implantation) to 3 months - called embryo 
  3. Foetus- 3 months up to birth
  4. Infancy-Birth to 1yrs
  5. Childhood 1 - 13 years. 
  6. Adolescence 13- 18 yrs
  7. Early adulthood 19  to 40 years. 
  8. Middle adulthood 40-60 years. 
  9. Late adulthood or old age 60+ years.


Sterility (infertility) means one becomes unable to produce good or enough sperm, as a result, fertilization couldn't occur. 

Impotence means erectile dysfunction. 


Procedure of Age Determination 

A. Preliminary Requirement:

1. Requisition from the police officer or Magistrate.  

2. Written consent of the person should be taken. Or consent from guardian (if age below 12).

3. Presence of nurse or female attendant on medical examination.

4. Proper identification of the girl by an authorized person (Police officer)


B. Medical Examination Proper:

The following particulars should be noted.  

1) Date, time, and place of examination. 

2) Name, father's name, age alleged by the person, sex, occupation, and address.  

3) Name of the person who brought the person for examination. 

4) Name of the police constable accompanying the person.  

5) Name of the nurse or attendant present at the medical examination. 

6) Marks of identification.  


  •  A mole present in the left angle of the mouth,  
  •  Scar mark present on the back of the right elbow. 

7) Physical Development 
       General build  

8) Secondary sexual characteristics (Changes of puberty) 

  • Growth of hair (Pubic, Axillary) 
  • Voice 
  • Breast development
  • Menstrual History 

9) Radiological examination of the bones 

X-rays of four big joints, eg. Hip, Knee, Ankle & Shoulder Joint 

10) Eruption of teeth 


C. Opinion:

The opinion about the age should be given based on the findings of physical, dental, and radiological examination. 

Then the opinion of age should be mentioned in range, like Considering the examination, the age of the person is found to be around 15-17 years.



Determination factors of Age 

Gestational age can be determined from  

  1. Maturation of chorionic villi, 
  2. Foot length and 
  3. Ossification centers


  • Hasse’s Formula 
  • X-ray examination  
  • Ultrasonography  
  • Height of the uterus 


For Extra-uterine life: 

  1. General/Physical Development
  2. Secondary Sexual Characters
  3. Eruption of the Teeth
  4. Ossification of Bone


Importance of different ages: 

Age Importance 
7 days after fertilization  Fertilized ovum gets implanted in the posterior wall of the uterus around the fundus & termed as an embryo. (After implantation only, women are termed as pregnant). It cannot be said that the woman is pregnant until the fertilized ovum is implanted. 
15 days  Infanticide in-case of Bangladesh 

12 week 

(3 months)

For the termination of pregnancy, decision about the applicability of the indications provided by the M.T.P Act (Medical Termination of Pregnancy) can be taken by one doctor. Above this age of the fetus, the opinion of two doctors are necessary to decide if the indications of the M.T.P Act are applicable or not.  
Sex of the fetus can be determined. 
After the end of the 2 months of the intra-uterine age, development of placenta occur 

(5 months) 

Maximum period for the termination of pregnancy. Above this, pregnancy can be terminated only on the ground of the mother's physical ill-health. 

7 calendar months (210 days) 

Legally, a fetus at this age becomes viable- (potential of the fetus to survive outside the uterus). If the fetus born alive after this age is killed, then it will amount to infanticide.

1 year

Killing of a baby < 1 year is termed as infanticide. 

5 years 

Responsible for his act leading to damage of the train property (according to Railway Act). 

7 years

A child is not responsible for any criminal offence 

10 years 

If a child below this age is removed from his or her lawful guardian for the purpose of robbing movable property from his or her body, then it will amount to offence of kidnapping. 

12 years 

Age to give basic consent (for General Examination) 

A child under 12 years cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which may occur from an act done in good faith and for its benefit. 

Nothing is an offence, which is done in good faith for the benefit of a child under this age, when such act is done by his or her guardians or on the consent of the guardians, even if the act ultimately causes harm to the child. 

14 years 

A child below 14 years cannot be employed for any type of work. 

15 years 

A person completing 15 years (adolescent) is allowed to work in a non-hazardous factory as an adult, if a fitness certificate is issued by a certifying surgeon. 

Sexual intercourse, even with one's wife, below this age, amounts to rape. 

16 years  

1. < 16 years, without the consent of the lawful guardian, taking away a boy is offence of kidnapping 

2. < 16 years, one can't give consent for intercourse 

3. < 16 years, sexual intercourse with/without giving consent is rape 

4. < 16 years an offender is treated as a juvenile offender in juvenile court 

18 years

1. Attainment of majority, except when is under the guardianship of a court. 

2. Competency for giving consent  
>18 years: can give consent to suffer any harm which may result from an act not intended or known to cause death or grievous hurt. 

(Age to give sexual consent, Age to give surgical consent

3. Minimum Marriageable age for female 

4. < 18 years, taking away girl is kidnapping. 

5. < 18 years, to procure girl for prostitution/intercourse is an offence 

6. Minimum age for entering into Government services 

7. Can cast his vote 

8. A person above 18 years of age can be employed in any authorized job in a factory.

21 years

1. Minimal Marriageable age for male 

2. < 21 years, to import girl for the purpose of intercourse is an offence (amount to kidnapping). 

3. Attainment of the majority of heirship for who are under a legal guardianship by court 

4. Up to this age, an offender can stay in a reformatory house (borstal school) 

25 years 

Minimum age for contesting for the membership of the parliament or other legislative body (Prime-Minister) 

30 years 

Maximum age for entering into Government services 

35 years

Minimum age for appointment as president of?Bangladesh 

41-45 years 

During this period of life, a woman usually loses her childbearing capacity. 

59 years 

Age for the retirement of government services holder 

65 years

Age for the retirement of justice only

Source: Blue highlighted texts are exactly from Reddy. 


Medico-legal importance of age: (Ref Lecture) 

In Criminal Cases

1. Criminal 

<7 years: child not responsible for offence. 

In case of railway law: <5 years is not responsible

2. Consent

<12 years: cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which may occur from an act done in good faith & for it  

>18 years: can give consent to suffer any harm which may result from an act not intended or known to cause death or grievous hurt. 

3. Judicial punishment

Juvenile in conflict with law" would mean a juvenile alleged to have committed an offence and not completed 18 years of age on the date of commission of such an offence the board may advise or warn the juvenile, or order to participate in group counseling or perform community service, or to be released on probation of conduct or to pay a fine, or to make an order directing the juvenile to be sent to a special home for the period until he becomes major. 

No juvenile in conflict with the law shall be sentenced to death or life imprisonment, or committed to prison. 

4. Rape Sexual intercourse by a man with a girl under 15 years even if she is his own wife, or with any other girl under 18 years even with her consent is rape. 
5. Kidnapping It is an offence  
(a) to kidnap a child with the intention of taking dishonestly any movable property, if the age of the child is under 10 years  
(b) to kidnap a minor from lawful guardianship if the age of a boy is under 16 and that of a girl under 18 years 
(c) to kidnap or maim a minor for purposes of begging  
(d) kidnapping, abducting, or inducing a woman to compel her marriage   
(e) to procure a girl for prostitution, if her age is under 18 years  
(f) to import from a foreign country a female for purposes of illicit intercourse, if her age is less than 21 years 
6. Prostitute

Same country: <18 years 

Other countries: >21 years 

7. Infanticide

In India: Killing of baby within 1 year.

In Bangladesh: 15 days

8. Criminal Abortion  A woman who has passed the child-bearing age cannot be charged of procuring criminal abortion.


In civil cases: 

1. Employment A child below 14 years cannot be employed for any type of work. A person completing 15 years (adolescent) is allowed to work in a factory as an adult, if a fitness certificate is issued by a certifying surgeon. 
2. Retirement 59 years and justice 65 years 
3. Attainment of majority  A person attains majority on the completion of 18 years, but when a person is under the guardianship of the Court of Wards, or is under a guardian appointed by the Court, he attains majority on the completion of 21 years 
4. Election and voting 

18 years: minimum age for casting vote 

25 years: prime minister/member of parliament 

35 years: president or MLA of Bangladesh 

5. Marriage

Male: 21 years 

Female: 18 years 

A female under 18 years and a male under 21 years, cannot contract marriage

6. Impotency and sterility 

Male: Boy may be sterile but not impotent before puberty 

Female: Women become sterile after menopause



Secondary sex characteristics: 


1. Appearance of pubic hair

2. Axillary hair

3. Beard and mustache

4. Hairs at chest and back

5. Hoarseness of voice  

6. Secretion of semen

7. Penis becomes adult type



1. Appearance of pubic hair 

2. Axillary hair

3. Development of breast

4. Menarche

5. External genitalia adult type 



This is a rough method of calculating the age of the fetus.  

During the first five months of pregnancy the square root of the length in cm gives the approximate age of the fetus in months, e.g. a foetus of 16 cm. is four months. 


Haase's Modification of Morisson's Law:  

During the last five months, the length in cm. divided by five gives the age in months, e.g., foetus of 35 cm. is 7 months. 


Fusion of bones joints (Ref Reddy)

16 years: Elbow joint. 

16 to 17 years: Ankle joint 

17 to 18 years: Hip joint 

18 to 19 years: Knee, shoulder, and wrist joints 

20 to 21 years: Fusion of iliac crest, ischial tuberosity, and the inner end of the clavicle. 



Forensic Odontology: 

It deals with the science of dentistry to aid in the administration of justice. 

Two types of teeth

1. Temporary/Deciduous or milk teeth:

  • 20 in number.   
  • Dental Formular for one quadrant – 2102 (2 Incisors, 1 canines, 2 molars) 

2. Permanent teeth:

  • 32 in number.  
  • Dental formula of each quadrant- 2123 (2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolar, 3 molar teeth) 


2 permanent premolars teeth come in replace of 2 temporary molar teeth. 

3 permanent molar teeth erupt from the space behind the 2nd temporary molar tooth. 


Mixed dentition

Starting from the day of the eruption of the permanent 1st?molar teeth till the day of the eruption of the last permanent canine, there will be both permanent and temporary teeth in the jaw. This period is called mixed dentition.    
Time: 6-12 years  

About 6th- 7th year, 1st permanent molar teeth erupt behind the 2nd temporary molar teeth. After this, the temporary teeth begin to fall off.  

Between 7-12 years, 24 teeth are present. 

At the age of 14, there are 28 permanent teeth and no deciduous teeth.  

From 14 to 20 years dental age estimation is based upon the stage of development of the third molar. 

If third molars have fully erupted, it indicates that an individual is above 17 years of age.  

If there is doubt whether a particular tooth is temporary, an X-ray can be taken. If it is the temporary tooth, the germ of the permanent tooth can be seen underneath. 


Developmentally, Permanent teeth can be divided into two sets. 

1. Superadded Permanent teeth:
These are those which do not have deciduous predecessors. 

Eg. All permanent molar teeth are erupt behind the space in the jaw left by temporary teeth. No milk teeth has to been fall for their eruption. 


2. Successional Permanent Teeth:
These are those which erupt in place of deciduous teeth.



Permanent Incisor teeth erupt in place of temporary incisor teeth 

Permanent canine teeth erupt in place of temporary canine teeth. 

Permanent Pre-molar teeth erupt in place of temporary Molar teeth. 


Each tooth has a crown, a neck, and a root embedded in the jaw bone.  


Teeth are composed of dentin, covered on the crown by enamel and on the root by cementum, which is attached to the alveolar bone by a periodontal membrane. 

Types of Teeth 

Incisor  2 in number  
Single root 
Canine  1 in number 
Single root 
Premolar or Bicuspid

Chewing surface has two cups. 

Usually single root, but maybe double 

Molar  Has 3,4 or 5 cups 
Each upper molar has 3 roots & the lower has two roots.




Eruption is defined as the superior part of the crown of the tooth appearing level with the surface of the alveolar bone. 

In both deciduous and permanent teeth, dentition occurs earlier in the lower jaw except for the lateral incisors which erupt earlier in the upper jaw. The lower permanent incisors, premolars, and molars erupt about one year earlier than do the corresponding teeth in the upper jaw. 

Tooth eruption in females may be one year before that of males. Females have smaller teeth (esp. lower canines) than males.  

In general, the dental and skeletal ages, correspond closely in the male, but in the female the skeletal age is generally one year ahead of the dental age. 

It is generally accepted that in a child estimation of age from teeth gives better results than skeleton. 

From 14 to 20 years. dental age estimation is based upon the stage of development of the third molar. 

If third molars are fully erupted, it indicates that an individual is above 17 years of age.  

In some persons due to inadequate jaw space, the third molars never erupt into the oral cavity, particularly the mandibular third molars. Such trapped teeth are known as impacted teeth.  

All the teeth can be visualized by single X-ray by dental panoramic tomograph (orthopantogram) 



Study of hair: Trichology 


Medico-legal importance of hair: 

1. Hair is important identification of:

  • Age
  • Sex
  • Race
  • Occupation
  • Blood group 

2. It often provides a connection between offence, offender, and offended 


I. Rape and sodomy: hair of accused may found with the victim 
II. Motor vehicles accident wheels take the hair of the victim 
III. Stain of hair: semen, blood, dye,?etc. 
IV. Struggle sign: tarring of hair, cadaveric spasm of the whole hair 
V. Sticking with the weapon 

  1. It indicates the cause of death e.g., arsenic poisoning. It tells the type of injury 
  2. It tells the type of weapon used: sharp/blunt 
  3. Sometimes indicates the nature of death e.g., cadaveric spasm
  4. Time of death can be measured 
  5. Singeining of hair indicates burn or close-range firearm injury 
  6. It is medico- legally important as it?resists?putrefaction?decomposition. 



Information from hair: 

  • Hair or some other fiber 
  • Human or animal (precipitation test) 
  • If human then age, sex, race, occupation, blood group 
  • From which part of the body derived
  • Did it fall naturally or was it forcibly removed 
  • If there is injury what is the type of injury 
  • Is the hair identical to the hair of the victim or accused 
  • Is it bear some trace evidence 


Male hair is comparatively thick or coarse. Female hair is comparatively thin & delicate. 

Scalp hair is comparatively shorter in males, in females it's longer. 

Facial hair, chest hair, limb hair are present in males. Only axially & pubic hair are present in females. 

Pubic hair has an upward extension with the apex near the umbilicus in males. 

Pubic hair is limited to slightly above the mon pubis. 


Barr bodies are very rare on the cells of the hair bulb in males. 

Barr bodies are common in the cells of the hair bulb in females. 



Bite mark 

Human bite marks are semi-circular of crescentic, caused by the front teeth, with a gap at either side due to separation of the upper and lower jaw. The teeth may cause clear, separate marks, or the form of a continuous / intermittently broken line. 

- Bite marks may be bruised, abrasions, lacerations, or a?combination?of any 2 or 3. 

- In sexual offense, it is found on the breast nipple, thigh, abdomen, shoulder, etc. 

- In child abuse, anywhere 

- Self-bite mark is found only in the shoulder and upper limb 


Love bite:  

It is a mixture of suction and tongue pressure over the upper jaw and shows multiple tiny dots of red line over the surface due to capillary hemorrhage (suction creates (-) Ve pressure-vessels rupture- hemorrhage) 


Examination of bite marks: 

- Bite marks may be found on the body of the victim as a mark of violence or on the body of the criminal as a mark of the struggle of the victim 

- Sometimes bite marks are found on the foodstuffs left at the place of occurrence 



It is the impressions of patterns from by the papillary or epidermal ridges of fingertips. 

It appears in intra-uterine life between 12-16 weeks and formation is completed by 24 weeks. 

Other prints: 

  • Footprint,
  • Plate print
  • Lip print
  • Ear print
  • Nose print 


Dactylography/?Galton?system/Finger print system/ Galton-Henry System 

It is the process of taking the impression of the papillary ridges of fingertips for the purpose of identification of a person. 

It was invented by Sir William Herschell: 1858, then in Kolkata sir Francis Galton and henry established it as a scientific system: 1892 (Galton-henry system)} 


Types of fingerprint/Type of Dactylography: 

4 types: 

1. Loop (60-70%)  Central pocket, radial, ulnar 
2. Whorl (25-35%)  Circular, oval, spiral, concentric, almond 
3. Arches (6-7%)  Plane, tented, exceptional 
4. Composite (1-2%)  Central pocket loop, lateral pocket loop, twined loop, accidental


Fingerprint found in the Scene of crime

  1. Latent
  2. Visible
  3. Plastic


Medico-legal importance of fingerprint/dactylography 

  1. Identification 
  2. Criminal investigation 
  3. Prevention of impersonality 
  4. Legal documents 



Study of the pores on the palmar aspects of finger 


DNA fingerprint - 

It is a technique involving chemically dividing the DNA into fragments which form a unique pattern and then matching that “identify profile” with the pattern obtained from similarly testing a suspect's blood specimen. 

Methods: 2 methods 

1. RELP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) 

2. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) 


  • Murder
  • Sexual crime
  • Paternity dispute
  • Disputed maternity
  • Exchange of newborn in the hospital
  • Identification: Mutilated body, Exhumation body, Species/race, Inherited disorder 


Stature: Stature means height

When both side arms are outstretched in a straight line, then the distance between the tips of the two middle fingers of the hands is approximately equal to the stature of the person.

Stature is equal to twice the length from vertex to symphysis pubis or equal to twice the length from the symphysis pubis to one side heel

Stature is 3.3 times the length from the sternal notch to the symphysis pubis. 



It is a technique applied to determine whether the skull is that of the person in the photograph or not. 


Scar/occupational mark 

It is the permanent product of wound healing which is made of fibrous tissue covered by epithelium without hair follicles, sweat gland,s, and pigments. 

Medico- legal importance: 

  • Identification of person,
  • Nature of weapon,
  • Criminal offence 


Difference between scar and mole: 


Traits Scar     Mole  
Hair follicle  Absent  Present
Sweat gland  Absent  Present 
Pigments  Absent  Present 


Tattoo mark

Tattoo marks are designs made in the skin by multiple small puncture wounds with needle/electric vibrator dipped coloring matters/agents. 

Coloring agents in Tattoo Mark: 

  • Indigo,
  • Indian ink, Cobalt,
  • Vermilion/cinnabar (mercuric sulphide),
  • Carbon dust 
  • Chinese black,
  • Prussian blue (ferric ferrocyanide),
  • Fluorescent ink,
  • Cadmium selenide 


Medico-legal importance of tattoo marks: 

It is the most important point of identification as because: 

1. It is a permanent mark 

2. It can be identified even in decomposed body 

3. If faded out, UV light can make it visible 

4. Its design, pattern, and size give us the idea of: 

  • Race,
  • Nationality,
  • Religion,
  • Social status,
  • Occupation,
  • Language,
  • Mental make up 

5. Even after obliteration pigment, it may be detected in the neighboring lymph node. 


Natural fading of Tattoo Mark: 

  • If pigments remain at the sub-epithelial level 
  • If present in the exposed part of the body 
  • Constant friction 


Methods of removing tattoo marks

  • Surgical operation,
  • Skin grafting,
  • Corrosive agent using,
  • Electrolysis 
  • CO2 snow
  • Burn,
  • Injury
  • Laser beam application 


Complications of tattoo marks

  • Septic inflammation 
  • Abscess
  • Gangrene
  • Syphilis
  • IDS 



1. Wound/Injury

2. Asphyxia

3. Autopsy

4. Medical Law And Ethics

5. Legal Procedure