MBBS 1st Year Question Collection Of Urinary System and Alimentary System(Physiology)

Urinary  system

  1. Draw and label different parts of the nephron.
  2. Enumerate the functions of the kidney, body fluid compartment and distal tubules.
  3. Differentiate between glomerular capillary and peritubular capillary.
  4. State the mechanism of autoregulation of renal blood flow.
  5. What is GFR with normal value? Name the factor influencing GFR.
  6. What is the filtration fraction?
  7. Why glomerular capillary is more permeable than other capillaries?
  8. Describe the basic mechanism of Na2 transport from tubular lumen into the blood.
  9. State the sodium reabsorption from the thick segment of the loop of Henley and proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule.
  10. Outline the mechanism of reabsorption of HCO3- from the renal tubule.
  11. Discuss the mechanism of reabsorption of water at different parts of the renal tubule.
  12. Name the basic process of urine formation.
  13. What is counter-current mechanism? How hyperosmolarity of renal medullary interstitium produced?
  14. State the mechanism of secretion of ammonia.
  15. Discuss the mechanism of acidification of urine.
  16. Define diuresis, differentiate between water and osmotic diuresis.
  17. Name the component of counter-current mechanism to write down the factors that are responsible for hyperosmotic renal medullary interstation.
  18. Name the hormones acting on the kidney.
  19. What do you mean by plasma clearance and osmotic clearance?
  20. What is water clearance?
  21. What is the atonic and automatic bladder? Cortical nephron.
  22. Short notes on:
  • Diuresis
  • Juxtaglomerular complex
  • Cortical nephron
  • Anion gap
  • M.G
  • Insensible perspiration.
  • Osmotic clearance
  • Water clearance
  1. Difference between cortical and juxtamedullary nephron.
  2. Give a 24 hours water intake and output charts in an adult.
  3. Define and calculate net filtration pressure.
  4. If the renal plasma flow is 650 ml/min. how can you calculate renal blood flow?
  5. Draw and label the glomerular membrane.
  6. Why protein cannot pass through the glomerular membrane.
  7. Why did insulin use to measure GFR? Give clearance value of urea, PAH, creatinine.
  8. Name the processes involved in the secretion of H+ into renal tubules. Show with a diagram the role of the kidney in acid-base balance. What is limiting PH?
  9. How does alkaline glomerular filtrate become acidic urine?
  10. Renal function test.
  11. Secretion of aldosterone.
  12. Substances that reabsorbed in PCT. How sodium reabsorption occurs from the tubules.
  13. Explain how is glucose reabsorbed from the PT of the kidney?
  14. What is the tubular load?
  15. What is the JG complex?
  16. Enumerate the function of proximal tubules of kidneys.
  17. State the tubular glomerular feedback mechanism for controlling of GFR.
  18. Name the factors that determine the concentrated urine.
  19. Why is the loop of Henley called the countercurrent mechanism?
  20. Name the layers of the adrenal cortex with their secretion.
  21. Write down the function and regulation of the secretion of aldosterone.
  22. Innervate the homeostatic function of the kidney.

Alimentary system

  1. Name the local hormones of GIT. Source and function of any three of them.
  2. Site of secretion and function of cholecystokinin.
  3. Daily secretion, PH of a. Sliva b.  gastric juice c. pancreatic juice
  4. Name the most constituents of gastric juice. With the source and function of any 4.
  5. Name the composition of bile.
  6. Define saliva and write functions.
  7. Different phases of gastric juice secretion.
  8. Short notes on
  • Alkaline tide
  • Postprandial alkaline tide
  • Enterohepatic circulation
  • Bile
  • Migratory motor complex
  • Micelles
  • Peristalsis

     9. What is the metabolic and hydrolytic type of secretion? Write their differences.

   10. How pancreatic juice secretion is regulated?

  1. Why the autodigestion of the pancreas does not occur?
  2. What is bile? Justify bile as a digestive juice. Name the digestive juice.
  3. The function of bile salt. How bile secretion is regulated?
  4. Name the bile salt with function.
  5. Name the bile acid.
  6. How bile is formed?
  7. Name the liver function test.
  8. Name the digestive enzymes.
  9. List the enzymes of pancreases.
  10. List the glands in the stomach with their functions.
  11. What do you mean by digestion and absorption?
  12. Digestion and absorption of cholesterol, important dietary cholesterol.
  13. How does bile help in fat digestion and absorption?
  14. Name the movements of GIT. Briefly discuss segmentation. Give the mechanism and purpose of any of them.
  15. Stages of swallowing.
  16. The function of stomach.
  17. Factors that regulate stomach emptying, and its affecting factors.
  18. What is the law of the gut?
  19. Describe the digestion of a piece of meat.
  20. The function of the liver.
  21. List the enzymes' concern with carbohydrate digestion along with the site of action in the alimentary tract. How glucose is absorbed from GIT?
  22. Name the digestive enzyme present in pancreatic juice.
  23. How does gastric secretion is regulated?
  24. Name the proteolytic enzyme of pancreatic juice.
  25. Name the gastrointestinal hormones. Write about the regulation of the secretion and function of any two of them.