How an intercostal nerve is formed? Write about typical and atypical intercostal nerve.
Give the boundary of the thoracic inlet. What are the structure passing through it?
What do you mean by thoracic inlet syndrome
Draw and level a typical intercostal space. Boundary, content and intercostal space.
Give the steps of discretion of typical intercostal space, number of it. Why they are called typical?
Define the intercostal nerve. Draw and level a typical intercostal nerve. Mention it’s functional components. How it is formed? How it differs from the spinal nerve.
What do you mean by the intercostobrachial nerve?
What do you mean by any gos system of veins? Give their area of drainage and importance.
What are the structure found at the level of the sternal angle?
What is the external intercostal membrane?
Give the branches of the internal thoracic artery.
Give the venous drainage of the thoracic wall.
List the muscle of forced expiration and inspiration.
How bony thoracic cage is formed? Write down movement of it. What is the diameter of the cage and how different diameters are affected by these movements during respiration?
Short note: A. Azygos vein B. Thoracic duct C. Pump handle movement D. Bucket handles movement
Discuss the conducting system of the heart. Mention the location and blood supply of different components of the conduction system of the heart.
Give the internal feature and development of the right atrium.
Give the formation and relation of the base of the heart.
How the sternocostal surface of the heart is formed? Give its relation and blood supply features.
Give the structure of trabeculae carnage, moderator band, and papillary muscle
Write the different part of interventricular septum. What is the pacemaker of the heart?
Draw and label the arterial supply of the heart. Define end artery.
What type of artery supply exists in the case of heart?
What do you mean by end artery and functional end artery?
Give the origin, course, branches, and area that is supplied by the right coronary artery.
Give the artery supply and venous drainage of the heart.
Write about the clinical importance of arterial supply of heart.
Give nerve supply of heart.
Mention the internal features of the right ventricle. Give its development. What is fallout’s tetralogy?
Give the development of right atrium, Internal septum, interventricular septum.
What is angiogenesis and vasculogenesis? Draw and label different parts of the primitive heart tube, give fates of it each part.
Enumerate the different septal defect. Or common interatrial septum anomalies.
What is fallouts tetralogy?
What is probe potency of foremen ovals?
What is dextrocardia? And it’s embryological basis.
Importance of patent duct’s arteriosus.
What is myocardium? Microscopic feature of the myocardium.
Short notes: Pacemaker A. Crystalloid terminalis B.The base of the heart C. Coronary sinus D. Superior vena cava E. Functional end artery F. Cardiacdullness
Give the sources of development of interatrial septum. Mention it’s congenital defects.
What is mediastinum? Division of mediastinum.
Give the boundary and contents superior mediastinum.
Give the boundary and contents of the posterior mediastinum and middle mediastinum.
What is pericardium? Give its parts, layers, blood supply, development, and nerve supply.
Short notes on Transverse pericardial sinus.
What is pericardial sinus? Discuss about it.
What is pleura? Parts and layers of pleura.
Give blood supply, nerve supply and development of pleura.
Why partial pressure is pain sensitive?
What do you mean by pleural recesses? Give types and extensions with clinical importance.
What is Supra pleural membranes? Give its attachment.
Write short note on parietal pleura
Give formation, attachment, and importance of Supra pleural membrane.
Mention the visceral relations of the apex of both lungs.
Give the difference between parietal pleura and visceral pleura. What is pleural recess?
Write short notes on the respiratory membrane.
What is lung bud? Give the stages of development of the lung.
Give the structure of alveoli of lung and blood-air barrier. What is respiratory distress syndrome?
Describe the median surface of the lung.
Give the visceral relations of the mediastinal surface of the left lung and Rt. Lung.
What is lung root? Give the structure passing through the root of Rt. Lung.
What is bilingual of lung? Name the structures passing through the hilum of the left lung.
Define the bronchopulmonary segment. Draw and label the bronchopulmonary segment of Rt. Lung. And left lung.
Give the nerve supply of the lungs with their effects.
Blood supply of Lt Lung. Write histological features of the lung.
What is respiratory epithelium? Why bronchopulmonary segment is not called vascular unit?
Histological structure of trachea. Mention their lining epithelium.
What do you mean by a respiratory portion of the lung? Give its component with blood supply.
Give the morphological differences between right and left principal bronchi?
Which bronchi is more susceptible to lodgement of inhaled foreign bodies? Explain why
Give the different layers of the respiratory membrane.
Name the cell of alveoli with their function.
What is hyaline membrane disease of RDS?
Functional parts of the lung. Mention their components with lining epithelium.
Give the lining epithelium of different segments of the lungs.
Draw and label the subdivision of the bronchial tree. As well as Rt bronchial tree.
Why lung abscess is more common in the right lung.
Write a short note on the bronchopulmonary segment.
Write about the cells of the lining epithelium of lung alveoli. What is RDS?
Mention the surgical importance of bronchopulmonary segments?
What is axilla? Briefly describe the axilla?
Give the boundary and content of the axilla.
Draw and label the brachial plexus. What is claw hand?
Draw and label mean brachial plexus.
What do you mean by prefix and postfix of brachial plexus?
Give the supraclavicular branch of brachial plexus.
Draw and label steps of the formation of brachial plexus. What is Erb’s palsy?
Classify axillary lymph nodes according to their location and area of drainage.
What is the wrist drop?
How shoulder joint is formed? Mention it’s different movements with responsible muscle for each movement. Why it is relatively weak joint? Name the ligament of the shoulder joint. How stability of this joint is maintained?
What is abduction? Name the muscles causing abduction of the shoulder joint.
Write the mechanism of the abduction of the shoulder joint.
Supination and Pronation
Define supination and pronation. Mention the joint and concerned muscles for these movements.
Give the origin, insertion, nerve supply of muscle causing supination and pronation.
Elbow, Wrist joint
Classify anastomoses with example. Draw label anastomoses around the elbow joint.
Give the formation, type, and movements of the wrist joint. Which muscles responsible for it?
Write about the formation and type of elbow joint. Mention it’s movements with related muscles.
Name the ligaments of the wrist joint. Why rotation is not possible in the wrist joint?
Mention structures passing superior and deep to the flexor retinaculum.
Define carpel tunnel. Name the structure passing through it and mention the clinical importance.
Write down the formation of superior and inferior radio-ulnar joint. Discuss their movements with responsible muscles.
Mention the joints related to clavicle and their type.
Why clavicle is called modified long bone?
Name and types of the joint formed by radius and ulna. How they are joint with each other?
What is rotator cuff? How it is formed? Give its importance.
Short note on: a. Annular ligament b. Intercarpal joint
What do you mean by probe potency of foremen ovals?
Define dermatology with its clinical importance.
Draw and label the dermatologist of the upper limb.
Give the formation and distribution of ulnar nerve, median nerve, and radial nerve.
Give the formation, course and clinical importance of axillary nerve.
Give the origin course, branches, termination and clinical importance of radial artery.
Name the superficial vein of the upper limb.
Write down the clinical importance of a cubical vein.
Short note: A. Median cubital vein B. Axillary vein
Muscles: give the origin, insertion, nerve supply and action of Deltoid, Pectoralis major, Biceps brachial, serratus anterior, Flexor digitorum superficialis.
Short note on Deltoid muscle.
Hand and Palm
Give the formation and contents of the carpal tunnel. Mention it’s clinical importance.
List the space found in the hand. Write about the pulp space of hand.
State the nerve supply and action of short muscle of hand. Muscles of thenar eminence.
Give the differences between palmar and dorsal interossei of hand.
What are the muscle acting on finger? Name the comportment of palm.
Short notes on lumbrical muscles.
What is pulp space? Give its formation, contents and clinical importance.
Give the attachment of extensor retinaculum. Name the structure passing beneath it.
How flexor retinaculum is formed? Give the cutaneous supply of hand.
Short note on: A. Anatomical snuff box B. Midpalmer space C. Palmar aponeurosis
Formation and structure within the carpal tunnel.
Mention nerve supply and action of lumbricals and interossei muscle of hand?
Name intrinsic muscle of hand and mention their nerve supply and action.
The pectoral region
Gives the lymphatic drainage of female breasts and its clinical importance.
Draw and label structure of the adult female breast. its blood supply and development, lymphatic drainage of the breast.
Development and components of the female breasts.
write short notes on clavipectorall fascia.
write down the muscle of the arm. contents of the bicipital groove.
Name the muscle of the front arm. Give their origin, insertion, nerve supply and action.
Give the boundary and contents of the cubital fossa.
Clinical importance of bicipital aponeurosis.
Short note: Carpel tunnel syndrome.
What is the wrist drop? what is collies fracture?
What is claw hand? what is Erb's palsy?
Give formation, transmitting structure and clinical importance of carpal tunnel syndrome.
list the outcome of injury of the upper, lower and middle trunk of brachial plexus.
give the clinical importance of the median cubital vein.