MBBS 1st Year Questions Collection of Thorax and Upper Limb
- How an intercostal nerve is formed? Write about typical and atypical intercostal nerves.
- Give the boundary of the thoracic inlet. What is the structure passing through it?
- What do you mean by thoracic inlet syndrome?
- Draw and level a typical intercostal space. Boundary, content, and intercostal space.
- Give the steps of discretion of typical intercostal space and the number of it. Why they are called typical?
- Define the intercostal nerve. Draw and level a typical intercostal nerve. Mention its functional components. How it is formed? How it differs from the spinal nerve.
- What do you mean by the intercostobrachial nerve?
- What do you mean by any gos system of veins? Give their area of drainage and importance.
- What are the structures found at the level of the sternal angle?
- What is the external intercostal membrane?
- Give the branches of the internal thoracic artery.
- Give the venous drainage of the thoracic wall.
- List the muscles of forced expiration and inspiration.
- How bony thoracic cage is formed? Write down the movement of it. What is the diameter of the cage and how different diameters are affected by these movements during respiration?
- Short note:
A. Azygos vein
B. Thoracic duct
C. Pump handle movement
D. Bucket handles movement
Thorax and Upper Limb | upper limb questions and answers pdf
- Discuss the conducting system of the heart. Mention the location and blood supply of different components of the conduction system of the heart.
- Give the internal feature and development of the right atrium.
- Give the formation and relation of the base of the heart.
- How the sternocostal surface of the heart is formed? Give its relation and blood supply features.
- Give the structure of trabeculae carnage, moderator band, and papillary muscle
- Write the different parts of the interventricular septum. What is the pacemaker of the heart?
- Draw and label the arterial supply of the heart. Define end artery.
- What type of artery supply exists in the case of the heart?
- What do you mean by end artery and functional end artery?
- Give the origin, course, branches, and area that is supplied by the right coronary artery.
- Give the artery supply and venous drainage of the heart.
- Write about the clinical importance of the arterial supply of the heart.
- Give nerve supply to the heart.
- Mention the internal features of the right ventricle. Give its development. What is Fallout’s tetralogy?
- Give the development of the right atrium, Internal septum, and interventricular septum.
- What is angiogenesis and vasculogenesis? Draw and label different parts of the primitive heart tube, and give the fates of each part.
- Enumerate the different septal defects. Or common interatrial septum anomalies.
- What is fallout tetralogy?
- What is the probe potency of foremen ovals?
- What is dextrocardia? And it’s embryological basis.
- Importance of patent duct arteriosus.
- What is myocardium? Microscopic feature of the myocardium.
- Short notes: Pacemaker
A. Crystalloid terminalis
B. The base of the heart
C. Coronary sinus
D. Superior vena cava
E. Functional end artery
- Give the sources of development of the interatrial septum. Mention it’s congenital defects.
Thorax and Upper Limb
- What is mediastinum? Division of mediastinum.
- Give the boundary and contents superior mediastinum.
- Give the boundary and contents of the posterior mediastinum and middle mediastinum.
- What is pericardium? Give its parts, layers, blood supply, development, and nerve supply.
- Short notes on Transverse pericardial sinus.
- What is pericardial sinus? Discuss about it.
- What is pleura? Parts and layers of pleura.
- Give blood supply, nerve supply, and development of pleura.
- Why partial pressure is pain sensitive?
- What do you mean by pleural recesses? Give types and extensions with clinical importance.
- What is Supra pleural membranes? Give its attachment.
- Write short note on parietal pleura
- Give formation, attachment, and importance of Supra pleural membrane.
- Mention the visceral relations of the apex of both lungs.
- Give the difference between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. What is pleural recess?
- Write short notes on the respiratory membrane.
- What is lung bud? Give the stages of development of the lung.
- Give the structure of the alveoli of the lung and blood-air barrier. What is respiratory distress syndrome?
- Describe the median surface of the lung.
- Give the visceral relations of the mediastinal surface of the left lung and Rt. Lung.
- What is lung root? Give the structure passing through the root of Rt. Lung.
- What is bilingual of the lung? Name the structures passing through the hilum of the left lung.
- Define the bronchopulmonary segment. Draw and label the bronchopulmonary segment of Rt. Lung. And left lung.
- Give the nerve supply of the lungs with their effects.
- Blood supply of Lt Lung. Write histological features of the lung.
- What is respiratory epithelium? Why bronchopulmonary segment is not called a vascular unit?
- Histological structure of trachea. Mention their lining epithelium.
- What do you mean by a respiratory portion of the lung? Give its component with blood supply.
- Give the morphological differences between the right and left principal bronchi.
- Which bronchi is more susceptible to lodgement of inhaled foreign bodies? Explain why
- Give the different layers of the respiratory membrane.
- Name the cell of alveoli with their function.
- What is the hyaline membrane disease of RDS?
- Functional parts of the lung. Mention their components with lining epithelium.
- Give the lining epithelium of different segments of the lungs.
- Draw and label the subdivision of the bronchial tree. As well as Rt bronchial tree.
- Why lung abscess is more common in the right lung.
- Write a short note on the bronchopulmonary segment.
- Write about the cells of the lining epithelium of lung alveoli. What is RDS?
- Mention the surgical importance of bronchopulmonary segments.
- What is axilla? Briefly describe the axilla?
- Give the boundary and content of the axilla.
- Draw and label the brachial plexus. What is claw hand?
- Draw and label mean brachial plexus.
- What do you mean by prefix and postfix of brachial plexus?
- Give the supraclavicular branch of the brachial plexus.
- Draw and label steps of the formation of the brachial plexus. What is Erb’s palsy?
- Classify axillary lymph nodes according to their location and area of drainage.
- What is the wrist drop?
- How shoulder joint is formed? Mention its different movements with responsible muscle for each movement. Why it is a relatively weak joint? Name the ligament of the shoulder joint. How stability of this joint is maintained?
- What is abduction? Name the muscles causing abduction of the shoulder joint.
- Write the mechanism of the abduction of the shoulder joint.
Supination and Pronation
- Define supination and pronation. Mention the joint and concerned muscles for these movements.
- Give the origin, insertion, and nerve supply of muscle causing supination and pronation.
Elbow, Wrist joint
- Classify anastomoses with examples. Draw label anastomoses around the elbow joint.
- Give the formation, type, and movements of the wrist joint. Which muscles are responsible for it?
- Write about the formation and type of elbow joint. Mention its movements with related muscles.
- Name the ligaments of the wrist joint. Why rotation is not possible in the wrist joint?
- Mention structures passing superior and deep to the flexor retinaculum.
- Define carpel tunnel. Name the structure passing through it and mention the clinical importance.
- Write down the formation of superior and inferior radio-ulnar joints. Discuss their movements with responsible muscles.
- Mention the joints related to the clavicle and their type.
- Why clavicle is called a modified long bone?
- Name and types of the joint formed by radius and ulna. How they are joined with each other?
- What is the rotator cuff? How it is formed? Give its importance.
- Short note on:
a. Annular ligament
b. Intercarpal joint
- What do you mean by probe potency of foremen ovals?
upper limb questions and answers pdf
- Define dermatology with its clinical importance.
- Draw and label the dermatologist of the upper limb.
- Give the formation and distribution of the ulnar nerve, median nerve, and radial nerve.
- Give the formation, course, and clinical importance of the axillary nerve.
- Give the origin course, branches, termination, and clinical importance of the radial artery.
- Name the superficial vein of the upper limb.
- Write down the clinical importance of a cubical vein.
- Short note:
A. Median cubital vein
B. Axillary vein
- Muscles: give the origin, insertion, nerve supply, and action of the Deltoid, Pectoralis major, Biceps brachial, serratus anterior, and Flexor digitorum superficialis.
- Short note on Deltoid muscle.
Hand and Palm
- Give the formation and contents of the carpal tunnel. Mention its clinical importance.
- List the space found in the hand. Write about the pulp space of the hand.
- State the nerve supply and action of the short muscle of the hand. Muscles of thenar eminence.
- Give the differences between the palmar and dorsal interossei of the hand.
- What are the muscles acting on the finger? Name the comportment of palm.
- Short notes on lumbrical muscles.
- What is pulp space? Give its formation, contents, and clinical importance.
- Give the attachment of the extensor retinaculum. Name the structure passing beneath it.
- How flexor retinaculum is formed? Give the cutaneous supply of hand.
- Short note on:
A. Anatomical snuff box
B. Midpalmer space
C. Palmar aponeurosis
- Formation and structure within the carpal tunnel.
- Mention nerve supply and action of lubricants and interossei muscle of hand.
- Name the intrinsic muscles of the hand and mention their nerve supply and action.
The pectoral region
- Gives the lymphatic drainage of female breasts and its clinical importance.
- Draw and label the structure of the adult female breast. its blood supply and development, and lymphatic drainage of the breast.
- Development and components of the female breasts.
- write short notes on clavipectorall fascia.
- Write down the muscle of the arm. contents of the bicipital groove.
- Name the muscle of the front arm. Give their origin, insertion, nerve supply, and action.
- Give the boundary and contents of the cubital fossa.
- Clinical importance of bicipital aponeurosis.
- Short note: Carpel tunnel syndrome.
- What is the wrist drop? what is collies fracture?
- What is claw hand? what is Erb's palsy?
- Give formation, transmitting structure, and clinical importance of carpal tunnel syndrome.
- list the outcome of injury of the upper, lower, and middle trunk of the brachial plexus.
- give the clinical importance of the median cubital vein.
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