Mandible & Hyoid Bone (Viva)


Q.1 Name the structures transmitted by mental foramen.

Mental nerve and vessels

Q.2 Name the structures present in the submandibular fossa.

  • Submandibular salivary gland,
  • Submandibular lymph nodes and
  • Facial artery

Q.3 What structures are attached to genial tubercles?

  • Upper genial tubercle: Origin of genioglossus.
  • Lower genial tubercle: Origin of geniohyoid.

Q.4 Name the structures attached to the angle of the mandible.

  • Stylomandibular ligament: To angle and posterior border of the ramus.
  • Masseter: To lateral surface of ramus and angle.
  • Medial pterygoid: To medial surface of ramus and angle.

Q.5 Name the structures related to the neck of the mandible.

On lateral aspect:
Parotid gland below the attachment of the lateral ligament of the jaw joint.

On medial aspect:

  • Auriculotemporal nerve, above.
  • Maxillary artery, below.

Q.6 What are the changes in the position of mental foramen with age?

The mental foramen at birth opens below sockets for deciduous molar teeth near the lower border. The foramen gradually shifts upwards and in adults, it opens midway between upper and lower borders.

In old age, due to the absorption of the alveolar border, the mental foramen lies close to the alveolar border.

Q.7 What is the characteristic feature of the ossification of the mandible?

It ossifies partly in membrane and partly in cartilage.

Parts ossifying in membrane:
Body of mandible except incisive part and lower half of ramus up to mandibular foramen.

Parts ossifying in cartilage:
Incisive part below incisor teeth, coronoid and condyloid processes, and upper half of ramus above mandibular foramen.

Q.8 How will you determine the sex to which the mandible belongs?

Features Male Female
General size Larger and thicker Smaller and thinner
Height of body Greater Lesser
Angle of mandible Lesser, Everted Greater, Inverted
Chin Quadrilateral Rounded
Inferior border of body
of mandible
Irregular Smooth curve 
Condyles Larger Smaller

Q.9 What is the commonest site of fracture of the body of mandible?

At the level of canine socket



Q.1 What is the level of hyoid bone?

C3 vertebra behind and base of mandible in front.

Q.2 Name the structures attached to the anterior surface of the body of the hyoid.

Insertion to: Geniohyoid and mylohyoid.

Origin to: Hyoglossus.

Below mylohyoid: Investing fascia.

Q.3 Name the structures attached to the lower border of the hyoid body?

Sternohyoid: Medial

Omohyoid, superior belly: Lateral

Thyrohyoid: Below omohyoid

Pretracheal fascia.

Q.4 What structures are attached to greater cornua of hyoid?

 Upper surface:

  • Middle constrictor: Medial
  • Hyoglossus: Lateral.
  • Stylohyoid: Lateral to hyoglossus.
  • Fibrous pully for Digastric tendon.

Medial border:

  • Thyrohyoid membrane.

 Lateral border:

  • Thyrohyoid muscle and Investing fascia.

Q.5 What structures are attached to lesser cornua of hyoid?

  • Stylohyoid ligament and
  • Middle constrictor muscle

Q.6 What is the developmental origin of hyoid bone?

Upper half of body and lesser cornua: Cartilage of second pharyngeal arch

Lower half of body and greater cornua: Cartilage of third pharyngeal arch.