Axilla & Subscapular Space (Viva)


Q.1 What is the shape of the axilla?

  • It is a four-sided pyramidal-shaped space, situated between the upper part of the arm and chest wall.


Q.2 What is the direction of the apex of axilla?

It is direct upwards and medially towards the root of the neck.


Q.3 What is ‘cervicoaxillay canal’?

It is a triangular interval bound by:

  • Anteriorly: Posterior surface of clavicle.
  • Posteriorly: Superior border of scapula.
  • Medially: Outer border of first rib. It corresponds to the apex of axilla and through it, axillary vessels and brachial plexus enter the axilla from the neck.


Q.4 What are the contents of the axilla?

  • Axillary artery and its branches.
  • Axillary vein and its tributaries.
  • Infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus.
  • Axillary lymph nodes and lymphatics.
  • Long thoracic and intercostobrachial nerves.
  • Axillary fat and areolar tissue.


Q.5 What are the boundaries of axilla?

  • Apex: Truncated.
  • Base: Skin and axillary fascia.
  • Anterior wall: Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor and clavipectoral fascia.
  • Posterior wall: Subscapularis above, teres major, and latissimus dorsi below.
  • Medial wall: Upper four ribs with intercostal muscles, upper part of serratus anterior.
  • Lateral wall: Upper part of shaft of humerus, coracobrachialis, short head of biceps muscle.


Subscapular Space

Q.1 What are the boundaries and contents of Quadrangular space?

Boundaries :

  • Superior: – Subscapularis – Capsule of shoulder joint – Teres minor
  • Inferior: Teres major
  • Medial: Long head of triceps
  • Lateral: Surgical neck of humerus


  • Axillary nerve
  • Posterior circumflex humeral vessels.


Q.2 What are the boundaries and contents of upper and lower triangular space?

Upper triangular space:


  • Superior: Teres minor Subscapularis
  • Lateral: Long head of triceps
  • Inferior: Teres major.

Contents: Circumflex scapular artery

Lower triangular space:


  • Superior: Teres major
  • Medial: Long head of triceps
  • Lateral: Medial border of humerus


  • Profunda brachii vessels
  • Radial nerve


Q.3 What are the boundaries of the Triangle of auscultation?

  • Medial: Lateral border of trapezius
  • Lateral: Medial border of scapula
  • Below: Upper border of latissimus dorsi
  • Floor: – 7th rib and 6th and 7th intercostal spaces. – Rhomboideus major and latissimus dorsi.


Q.4 What is the clinical importance of `Triangle of auscultation?

It is the only part of the back which is not covered with muscles and breath sounds are better heard there.