Clavicle & Scapula (Viva-related)

CLAVICLE


Q.1 What are the characteristic features of the clavicle?

  • It is a long bone that lies horizontally in the body.
  • It has no medullary cavity.
  • It is subcutaneous throughout.
  • It is the first bone to ossify in the body of the fetus.
  • Only long bone that ossifies in membrane except sternal and acromial end.
  • It is the only long bone which ossifies from two primary centers.
  • It is the most commonly fractured bone in the body.

Q.2 How will you determine the side to which the clavicle belongs?

  • It was two ends, lateral and medial. The lateral end is flat and the medial end is large and quadrilateral.
  • Shaft is convex forwards in medial 2/3 and concave forwards in lateral 1/3.
  • The inferior surface is grooved longitudinally in the middle 1/3.

Q.3 What is the nutrient artery supplying clavicle?

  • Nutrient branch from the suprascapular artery

Q.4 What are the muscles attached to the medial part of the clavicle?

  • Clavicular part of pectoralis major: From anterior surface of medial half.
  • Clavicular head of sternocleidomastoid: From the upper surface of the medial part.
  • Lateral part of sternohyoid: Posterior surface of medial end.

Q.5 What are the functions of the clavicle?

  • Transmits force from the upper limb to the axial skeleton.
  • Provides attachment to muscles.
  • Acts as a strut holding arm free from the trunk.

Q.6 Name the structures attached to the edges of the groove for subclavius.

  • Clavipectoral fascia

Q.7 To which structure the medial end of the clavicle articulates?

  • Manubrium sterni
  • First costal cartilage

Q.8 At which site the clavicle fracture occurs commonly?

  • At the junction of the middle and outer third, which is the weakest point.

 

SCAPULA


Q.9 What is the extent and position of the scapula?

  • It lies on the posterolateral aspect of the chest wall.
  • It extends from II to VII rib.

Q.10 How will you determine the side to which scapula belongs?

  • The lateral angle is large and has a glenoid cavity.
  • Lateral thickest border runs from the glenoid cavity above to the inferior angle below.
  • The dorsal surface is convex and is divided into supraspinatus and infraspinatus fossa by a triangular spine.
  • The costal surface is concave.

Q.11 Name the structures passing above and below the suprascapular notch.

  • The suprascapular notch is converted into a foramen by the suprascapular ligament.
  • The suprascapular artery passes above the ligament and suprascapular nerve below the ligament.

Q.12 Name the structures attached to Acromion.

  • Trapezius: Inserted on its medial border
  • Deltoid: Originates from the lateral margin, tip, and the upper surface.
  • Coracoacromial ligament: Attached to apex of acromion.

Q.13 What are the structures attached to the coracoid process?

Muscles:

  • Short head of biceps: Origin from the tip of the coracoid process.
  • Coracobrachialis: Origin from the tip of the coracoid process.
  • Pectoralis minor: Insertion on medial border and superior surface.

Ligaments:

  • Coracoacromial ligament: To lateral border.
  • Coracoclavicular ligament: Conoid part to knuckle of process. Trapezoid part to ridge between pectoralis minor and coracoacromial ligament.
  • Coracohumeral ligament: To root of the coracoid process.

Q.14 Name the muscles inserting on the medial border of the scapula?

On coastal surface:
Insertion of two digitations of the serratus anterior.

On dorsal surface: Insertion of

  • Levator scapulae: Above root of spine
  • Rhomboideus minor: Opposite the root
  • Rhomboideus major: Below the root 

Q.15 Which muscle originates from supraglenoid tubercle?

  • Long head of biceps

Q.16 Which muscle originates from infraglenoid tubercle?

  • Long head of triceps

Q.17 How many ossification centers are present in scapula?

  • Eight