Q.1 What are the characteristic features of the clavicle?
- It is a long bone that lies horizontally in the body.
- It has no medullary cavity.
- It is subcutaneous throughout.
- It is the first bone to ossify in the body of the fetus.
- Only long bone that ossifies in membrane except sternal and acromial end.
- It is the only long bone which ossifies from two primary centers.
- It is the most commonly fractured bone in the body.
Q.2 How will you determine the side to which the clavicle belongs?
- It was two ends, lateral and medial. The lateral end is flat and the medial end is large and quadrilateral.
- Shaft is convex forwards in medial 2/3 and concave forwards in lateral 1/3.
- The inferior surface is grooved longitudinally in the middle 1/3.
Q.3 What is the nutrient artery supplying clavicle?
- Nutrient branch from the suprascapular artery
Q.4 What are the muscles attached to the medial part of the clavicle?
- Clavicular part of pectoralis major: From anterior surface of medial half.
- Clavicular head of sternocleidomastoid: From the upper surface of the medial part.
- Lateral part of sternohyoid: Posterior surface of medial end.
Q.5 What are the functions of the clavicle?
- Transmits force from the upper limb to the axial skeleton.
- Provides attachment to muscles.
- Acts as a strut holding arm free from the trunk.
Q.6 Name the structures attached to the edges of the groove for subclavius.
Q.7 To which structure the medial end of the clavicle articulates?
- Manubrium sterni
- First costal cartilage
Q.8 At which site the clavicle fracture occurs commonly?
- At the junction of the middle and outer third, which is the weakest point.
Q.9 What is the extent and position of the scapula?
- It lies on the posterolateral aspect of the chest wall.
- It extends from II to VII rib.
Q.10 How will you determine the side to which scapula belongs?
- The lateral angle is large and has a glenoid cavity.
- Lateral thickest border runs from the glenoid cavity above to the inferior angle below.
- The dorsal surface is convex and is divided into supraspinatus and infraspinatus fossa by a triangular spine.
- The costal surface is concave.
Q.11 Name the structures passing above and below the suprascapular notch.
- The suprascapular notch is converted into a foramen by the suprascapular ligament.
- The suprascapular artery passes above the ligament and suprascapular nerve below the ligament.
Q.12 Name the structures attached to Acromion.
- Trapezius: Inserted on its medial border
- Deltoid: Originates from the lateral margin, tip, and the upper surface.
- Coracoacromial ligament: Attached to apex of acromion.
Q.13 What are the structures attached to the coracoid process?
- Short head of biceps: Origin from the tip of the coracoid process.
- Coracobrachialis: Origin from the tip of the coracoid process.
- Pectoralis minor: Insertion on medial border and superior surface.
- Coracoacromial ligament: To lateral border.
- Coracoclavicular ligament: Conoid part to knuckle of process. Trapezoid part to ridge between pectoralis minor and coracoacromial ligament.
- Coracohumeral ligament: To root of the coracoid process.
Q.14 Name the muscles inserting on the medial border of the scapula?
On coastal surface:
Insertion of two digitations of the serratus anterior.
On dorsal surface: Insertion of
- Levator scapulae: Above root of spine
- Rhomboideus minor: Opposite the root
- Rhomboideus major: Below the root
Q.15 Which muscle originates from supraglenoid tubercle?
Q.16 Which muscle originates from infraglenoid tubercle?
Q.17 How many ossification centers are present in scapula?